MUSIC and ARTS
Both the Music and the Arts curricula focus on the learner as recipient of the knowledge, skills, and values necessary for artistic expression and cultural literacy. The design of the curricula is student-centered, based on spiral progression of processes, concepts and skills and grounded in performancebased learning. Thus, the learner is empowered, through active involvement and participation, to effectively correlate music and art to the development of his/her own cultural identity and the expansion of his/her vision of the world. As Music and Arts are performance-based disciplines, effective learning occurs through active experience, participation, and performance, creative expression, aesthetic valuation, critical response, and interpretation. The skills that are developed include reading/analyzing, listening/observing, performing, (singing, using musical instruments, movement, acting, and playing, using different art materials, techniques and processes, responding, composing, and creating. (See Figure 1 and Figure 2) The philosophical foundations upon which standards and competencies are based include: A Process of Education by Jerome Bruner, Performance-Based Learning by Cleve Miller, Aesthetic Education by Bennett Reimer, Multiple Intelligences by Howard Gardner, A Structure for Music Education by Ronald Thomas, Gongs and Bamboo by Jose Maceda, Compendium on the Humanities: Musical Arts produced by the National Research Council of the Philippines, Cultural Dictionary for Filipinos by Thelma Kintanar and Associates, Creative and Mental Growth by Viktor Lowenfeld and W. Lambert Brittain, Discipline-Based Art Education by Elliot Eisner, Encyclopedia of Philippine Arts and Tuklas Sining, both produced by the Cultural Center of the Philippines.
The Curricular Philosophy of the K to 12 PE Curriculum
Fitness and movement education content is the core of the K to 12 PE Curriculum. It includes value, knowledge, skills and experiences in physical activity
participation in order to (1) achieve and maintain health-related fitness (HRF), as well as (2) optimize health. In particular, it hopes to instill an understanding of why HRF is
important so that the learner can translate HRF knowledge into action. Thus, self-management is an important skill. In addition, this curriculum recognizes the view that
fitness and healthy physical activity (PA) behaviors must take the family and other environmental settings (e.g. school, community and larger society) into consideration. This
curricular orientation is a paradigm shift from the previous sports-dominated PE curriculum aimed at athletic achievement.
Move to learn is the context of physical activity as the means for learning, while Learn to move embodies the learning of skills, and techniques and the acquisition of
understanding that are requisites to participation in a variety of physical activities that include exercise, games, sports, dance and recreation.
The K to 12 PE Curriculum develops the students’ skills in accessing, synthesizing and evaluating information, making informed decisions, enhancing and advocating
their own and others’ fitness and health. The knowledge, understanding and skills underpin the competence, confidence and commitment required ofall students to live an
active life for fitness and health.
The K to 12 PE Curriculum prioritizes the following standards:
1. Habitual physical activity participation to achieve and maintain health-enhancing levels of fitness.
2. Competence in movement and motor skills requisite to various physical activity performances.
3. Valuing physical activities for enjoyment, challenge, social interaction and career opportunities.
4. Understanding various movement concepts, principles, strategies and tactics as they apply to the learning of physical activity.
Physical literacy is consists of movement, motor- and activity-specific skills. In the early grades the learners are taught the ‘what,’ ‘why’ and ‘how’ of the movement.
This progresses to an understanding of the ‘why’ of the movement which is achieved by developing more mature movement patterns and motor skills in a wide range and
variety of exercise, sports and dance activities to specifically enhance fitness parameters. The learners builds on these knowledge and skills in order to plan, set goals and
monitor their participation in physical activities (exercise, sports and dance) and constantly evaluate how well they have integrated this their personal lifestyle. This implies
the provision of ongoing and developmentally-appropriate activities so that the learners can practice, create, apply and evaluate the knowledge, understanding and skills
necessary to maintain and enhance their own as well as others’ fitness and health through participation in physical activities.
The curriculum also allows for an inclusive approach that understands and respects the diverse range of learners; thus, the program takes into account their needs,
strengths and abilities. This is to ensure that all learners have equivalent opportunities and choices in Physical Education.
The curriculum emphasizes knowing the ‘what’, ‘how’ and ‘why’ of movement. It focuses on developing the learners’ understanding of how the body responds,
adjusts and adapts to physical activities. This will equip the learner to become self-regulated and self-directed as a result of knowing what should be done and actually doing
it; is the learners are equally confident in influencing their peers, family, immediate community, and ultimately, society. These are all valuable 21st century skills which the K
to 12 PE Curriculum aspires for the learners to develop.
The program has five learning strands:
1. Body management which includes body awareness, space awareness, qualities and relationships of movements and how these are used dynamically in various physical
2. Movement skills related to the fundamental movement patterns and motor skills that form the basis of all physical activities.
3. Games and sports consisting of simple, lead-up and indigenous games; as well as individual, dual and team sports in competitive and recreational settings.
4. Rhythms and dances include rhythmical movement patterns; the promotion and appreciation of Philippine folk dance, indigenous and traditional dances as well as other
5. Physical fitness includes assessment through fitness tests and records, interpreting, planning and implementing appropriate programs that support fitness and health goals.
The acquisition of physical literacy serves as the foundation for lifelong physical activity participation which is critical to maintaining and promoting health. Thus, the
health strand in the senior high school (SHS) is seamlessly integrated in the PE curriculum. This strand optimizes the learner’s potential for health and wellbeing and
contributes to building healthy, active communities. Thus, the course title, Health-optimizing PE or H.O.P.E.
Health Education from Kindergarten to Grade 10 focuses on the physical, mental, emotional, as well as the social, moral and spiritual dimensions of holistic health. It
enables the learners to acquire essential knowledge, attitudes, and skills that are necessary to promote good nutrition; to prevent and control diseases; to prevent substance
misuse and abuse; to reduce health-related risk behaviors; to prevent and control injuries with the end-view of maintaining and improving personal, family, community, as
well as global health.
Health Education emphasizes the development of positive heath attitudes and relevant skills in order to achieve a good quality of living. Thus, the focus on skills
development is explicitly demonstrated in the primary grade levels. Meanwhile, a comprehensive body of knowledge is provided in the upper year levels to serve as a
foundation in developing desirable health attitudes, habits and practices.
In order to facilitate the development of health literacy competencies, the teacher is highly encouraged to use developmentally-appropriate learner-centered teaching
approaches. This includes scaffolding on student experience and prior learning; utilizing culture-responsive scenarios and materials; incorporating arts, and music in imparting
health messages; engaging learners in meaningful games and cooperative learning activities; and using life skills and value-based strategies particularly in discussing
sensitive topics such as substance abuse and sexuality. The teacher is also advised to use differentiated instruction in order to cater to the learners’ various needs and
Ang tunguhin o ”outcome” ng pag-aaral sa batayang edukasyon ay ang panlahatang pag–unlad taglay ang mga kasanayan sa ika–dalawampu’t isang siglo.
Taglay ito ng isang mag-aaral kung mayroon siyang mga kakayahang pangkaalaman, pandamdamin at pangkaasalan na magbibigay sa kanya ng kakayahan
1. mamuhay at magtrabaho
2. malinang ang kanyang mga potensiyal
3. magpasiya nang mapanuri at batay sa impormasyon
4. makakilos nang epektibo sa lipunan at pamayanan sa konteksto ng sandaigdigan upang mapabuti ang uri ng kanyang pamumuhay at ng kanyang
lipunan (Literacy Coordinating Council, Setyembre 1997).
Ibinatay ang kahulugan at ang limang palatandaan nito sa Apat na Batayan (Pillar) ng Edukasyon at sa konsepto ng UNESCO tungkol sa mga panghabambuhay
na kakayahan (life skills) na binuo ng International Commission on Education para sa ika-21 siglo. Ang sumusunod ang limang palatandaan nito: (a) may
kakayahang makipagtalastasan, (b) nag-iisip nang mapanuri at may kakayahang lumutas ng suliranin, (c) ginagamit ang mga likas na yaman nang
mapanagutan para sa susunod na salinlahi at (d) produktibo, napauunlad ang sarili at ang pakikipagkapwa, at (e) may malawak na pananaw sa daigdig.
Sa Edukasyon sa Pagpapakatao (EsP), ang palatandaan o batayang kakayahan ng functional literacy ay nagpapasya at kumikilos nang mapanagutan tungo sa
kabutihang panlahat. Ibig sabihin, nilalayon ng EsP na linangin at paunlarin ang pagkataong etikal ng mag-aaral. Ang EsP ay naglalayong gabayan ang magaaral na mahanap / matagpuan ang kabuluhan ng kanyang buhay, ang papel niya sa lipunang Pilipino upang makibahagi siya sa pagtatayo ng pamayanang
pinaiiral ang katotohanan, kalayaan, katarungan at pagmamahal. Upang maipamalas ito, kailangang taglay niya ang limang pangunahing kakayahan (macro
skills)*: pag-unawa, pagninilay, pagsangguni, pagpapasiya at pagkilos.
1. Pag-unawa. Mahalagang maipamalas niya ang kakayahang mahinuha ang mga konsepto at prinsipyong nagbibigay-paLiwanag sa sariling karanasan,
mga sitwasyong namasid, sinuri at pinagnilayan gamit ang obhektibong pamantayan ng moral na pamumuhay.
2. Pagninilay. Sa gitna ng mabilis na daloy ng impormasyon at ingay ng kapaligiran, kailangang mag-ukol ng panahon ang mag-aaral sa maingat at
malalim na pag-iisip sa mga sitwasyong naobserbahan at mga konseptong natutuhan tungkol sa moral na pamumuhay.
3. Pagsangguni. Kailangang humingi siya ng payo o gabay sa mga taong may higit na kaalaman o kasanayan sa moral na pamumuhay at marunong
magsala (weigh) ng mga impormasyong mula sa iba’t ibang uri ng media batay sa obhektibong pamantayan ng moral na pamumuhay.
4. Pagpapasiya. Kailangang matuto siyang bumuo ng sariling posisyon, paniniwala, paninindigan o kilos na isasagawa batay sa obhektibong pamantayan
ng moral na pamumuhay.
5. Pagkilos. Mahalagang mailapat niya ang konsepto o prinsipyong nahinuha mula sa mga konkretong sitwasyon ng buhay at maipakita ang kahandaang
isabuhay ang mga mabuting ugali (virtues) na natutuhan batay sa obhektibong pamantayan ng moral na pamumuhay.
Ang mga pangunahing kakayahang ito ay nililinang sa apat na tema sa bawat taon sa paraang “expanding spiral” mula Kindergarten hanggang Grade 12. Ang
sumusunod ang apat na tema: (a) Pananagutang Pansariliat Pagiging Kasapi ng Pamilya , (b) Pakikipagkapwa at Katatagan ng Pamilya, (c) Paggawa Tungo sa
Pambansang Pag-unlad at Pakikibahagi sa Pandaigdigang Pagkakaisa, at (d) Pagkamaka-Diyos at Preperensya sa Kabutihan. Pitong pangunahing
pagpapahalaga (core values) ang nililinang sa mga temang ito: Kalusugan at Pakikiisa sa Kalikasan, Katotohanan at Paggalang, Pagmamahal at Kabutihan,
Ispiritwalidad, Kapayapaan at Katarungan, Likas-kayang Pag-unlad, Pagkamaka-Pilipino at Pakikibahagi sa Pambansang Pagkakaisa (Values Education for the
Filipino: 1997 Revised Version of the DECS Values Education Program, ph. 10-11).
Ang Pilosopiya at mga Batayang Teorya ng Pagtuturo-Pagkatuto
Ang Batayang Konseptwal ng Edukasyon sa Pagpapakatao ay batay sa pilosopiyang Personalismo tungkol sa pagkatao ng tao at sa Etika ng Kabutihang Asal
(Virtue Ethics). Ayon sa pilosopiya ng Personalismo, nakaugat lagi sa pagpapakatao ang ating mga ugnayan. Nililikha natin ang ating pagpapakatao sa ating
pakikipagkapwa. Sa Virtue Ethics naman, sinasabing ang isang mabuting tao ay nagsasabuhay ng mga virtue o mabuting gawi (habits) at umiiwas sa mga
bisyo o masamang gawi. Samakatwid, ang nagpapabuti sa tao ay ang pagtataglay at ang pagsasabuhay ng mga mabuting gawi.
Sa murang edad na 6 hanggang 12 taon, maaaring hindi pa lubos na maunawaan ng isang bata ang kanyang pagkatao bilang tao ayon sa paLiwanag ng
pilosopiyang Personalismo. Ngunit maaari siyang sanayin sa mga virtue at pagpapahalaga upang lumaki siyang isang mabuting tao. Sa mga edad na ito,
mauunawaan niya na dapat siyang magpakabuti hindi lamang sapagkat ito ang inaasahan sa kanya ng lipunan kundi dahil tao siya - may dignidad at likas ang
pagiging mabuti. May dignidad ang tao dahil siya ay bukod-tangi at may ugnayan sa kanyang kapwa, sa Diyos, at kalikasan.
Ang Interaktibong Teorya ng Pagkatuto (Social Learning Theory) ni Albert Bandura, Pagkatutong Pangkaranasan (Experiential Learning) ni David Kolb,
Konstruktibismo (Constructivism) at Teorya ng Pamimili ng Kurso (Theory of Career Development) ni Ginzberg, et. al. at Super ang iba pang teorya na
nagpapaLiwanag kung paano natututo ang mag-aaral sa EsP.
Ayon sa paLiwanag ng Interaktibong Teorya ng Pagkatuto (Social Learning Theory) ni Albert Bandura, maaaring makuha sa pagmamasid sa ibang tao ang mga
pagkatuto tulad ng pagkakaroon ng mabuting ugali at bagong impormasyon. Ayon pa rin sa teoryang ito, mahalaga ang mga iniisip ng tao sa kanyang
pagkatuto ngunit hindi nangangahulugang magbubunga ito ng pagbabago sa kilos.
Ang mga karanasan din ang pinagkukunan ng mga pagkatuto ayon kay David Kolb at sa Teorya ng Pagkatuto ng Konstruktibismo. Ayon saTeorya ng
Pagkatutong Pangkaranasan ni Kolb, ang mga nasa edad (adults) ay natututo sa pamamagitan ng kanilang pagninilay sa kanilang mga karanasan, pagbuo ng
mga konklusyon o insight mula sa mga ito, at paglalapat ng mga ito sa angkop na mga sitwasyon ng buhay. Sinusuportahan ang pananaw ni Kolb ng Teorya
ng Konstruktibismo. Sinasabi ng teoryang ito nanagkakaroon ng pagkatuto ang tao at gumagawa ng kabuluhan (meaning) batay sa kanyang mga karanasan.
Naipamamalas ito sa pagtuturo sa pamamagitan ng pagbibigay ng tuon sa mag-aaral. Nagkakaroon siya ng mga bagong pagkatuto gamit ang mga tanong ng
guro at ng kanyang malikhaing paraan.
Nailalapat ang mga pagkatutong ito sa paggawa ng mga pasiya tulad ng kukuning kurso o propesyon. Ayon sa Teorya ng Career Development nina Ginzberg,
et. al. at Super, dumadaan sa iba’t ibang yugto ang pagpapasya ng bata ukol sa kurso o propesyon batay sa kanyang pagtingin sa sarili (self-concept), saloobin
(attitude) at mga pagpapahalaga. Tinatanggap o tinatanggihan niya ang isang kurso o trabaho batay sa obserbasyon niya (halimbawa, mga kilos ng kanyang
magulang ayon sa propesyon nito) at sa tinuturing niyang mahalaga (halimbawa, malaking sweldo o paglilingkod sa lipunan).
Mga Disiplina ng Edukasyon sa Pagpapakatao
Ang nilalaman at istraktura ng Edukasyon sa Pagpapakatao ay nakaankla sa dalawang disiplina: Ethics at Career Guidance. Ang Etika ay ang siyensya ng
moralidad ng kilos ng tao. Samantalang Career Guidance naman ang paggabay sa mag-aaral na magpasiya ng kursong akademiko, sining at isports o teknikalbokasyonal na tugma sa kanyang mga talento, kakayahan at aptitude at mga trabahong kailangan ng industriya.
Mga Dulog sa Pagtuturo
Ang mga pangunahing dulog na gagamitin sa pagtuturo ng mga konsepto ay ang pagpapasyang etikal (ethical decision making) sa pamamagitan ng pagsusuri
ng suliranin o isyu), ang Panlipunan–Pandamdaming Pagkatuto (Social-Emotional Learning), at pagpaplano ng kursong akademiko o teknikal-bokasyonal.
Ang paggawa ng pagpapasyang etikal o moral ay ang pagbuo ng pasiya na may preperensya sa kabutihan at magpapatingkad o maglilinang ng pagkatao ng
tao. Proseso ito na kinapapalooban ng (a) pag-alam sa mga detalye ng sitwasyon at (b) maingat na pagsasaalang-alang ng mga moral na pagpapahalaga na
mahalaga sa isang sitwasyon. Mahalaga rin dito ang pagiging sensitibo sa mga aspetong moral ng mga sitwasyon sa pang-araw-araw na buhay at ang
kamalayan sa mga tao o pangkat na maaapektuhan ng pasiya.
Ang Panlipunan–Pandamdaming Pagkatuto (Social-Emotional Learning) ay ang pagkakaroon ng mga kakayahang kailangan sa pagkilala at pamamahala ng
sarili, paglinang ng pagmamalasakit sa kapwa, paggawa ng mapanagutang pasiya, pakikipag-ugnayan, at pagharap nang epektibo sa mga mapanghamong
sitwasyon. Paraan ito ng paglinang ng mga kakayahan ng mag-aaral upang magtagumpay sa mga gawain sa buhay. Nahahati sa limang uri ang mga
kakayahang ito: Kamalayang Pansarili, Pamamahala ng Sarili, Kamalayang Panlipunan, Pamamahala ng Pakikipag-ugnayan at Mapanagutang Pagpapasiya.
Mathematics is one subject that pervades life at any age and in any circumstance. Thus, its value goes beyond the classroom and the school. Mathematics
as a school subject, therefore, must be learned comprehensively and with much depth.
The twin goals of mathematics in the basic education levels, K-10, are Critical Thinking and Problem Solving.
Critical thinking, according to Scriven and Paul (1987) is the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skilfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing,
synthesizing, and/or evaluating information gathered from, or generated by, observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication, as a guide to belief and action.
On the other hand, according to Polya (1945 & 1962), mathematical problem solving is finding a way around a difficulty, around an obstacle, and finding a solution to a
problem that is unknown.
These two goals are to be achieved with an organized and rigorous curriculum content, a well-defined set of high-level skills and processes, desirable values and
attitudes, and appropriate tools, taking into account the different contexts of Filipino learners.
There are five content areas in the curriculum, as adopted from the framework prepared by MATHTED & SEI (2010): Numbers and Number Sense, Measurement,
Geometry, Patterns and Algebra, and Probability and Statistics.
The specific skills and processes to be developed are: knowing and understanding; estimating, computing and solving; visualizing and modelling; representing and
communicating; conjecturing, reasoning, proving and decision-making; and applying and connecting.
The following values and attitudes are to be honed as well: accuracy, creativity, objectivity, perseverance, and productivity.
We recognize that the use of appropriate tools is necessary in teaching mathematics. These include: manipulative objects, measuring devices, calculators and
computers, smart phones and tablet PCs, and the Internet.
We define context as a locale, situation, or set of conditions of Filipino learners that may influence their study and use of mathematics to develop critical thinking and
problem solving skills. Contexts refer to beliefs, environment, language and culture that include traditions and practices, as well as the learner’s prior knowledge and
The framework is supported by the following underlying learning principles and theories: Experiential and Situated Learning, Reflective Learning, Constructivism,
Cooperative Learning and Discovery and Inquiry-based Learning. The mathematics curriculum is grounded in these theories.
Experiential Learning as advocated by David Kolb is learning that occurs by making sense of direct everyday experiences. Experiential Learning theory defines learning
as "the process whereby knowledge is created through the transformation of experience. Knowledge results from the combination of grasping and transforming experience"
(Kolb, 1984, p. 41). Situated Learning, theorized by Lave and Wenger, is learning in the same context in which concepts and theories are applied.
Reflective Learning refers to learning that is facilitated by reflective thinking. It is not enough that learners encounter real-life situations. Deeper learning occurs when
learners are able to think about their experiences and process these, allowing them the opportunity to make sense of and derive meaning from their experiences.
Constructivism is the theory that argues that knowledge is constructed when the learner is able to draw ideas from his/her own experiences and connect them to new
Cooperative Learning puts premium on active learning achieved by working with fellow learners as they all engage in a shared task.
The mathematics curriculum allows for students to learn by asking relevant questions and discovering new ideas. Discovery Learning and Inquiry-based Learning
(Bruner, 1961) support the idea that students learn when they make use of personal experiences to discover facts, relationships, and concepts.
BRIEF COURSE DESCRIPTION
Mathematics from K-10 is a skills subject. By itself, it is all about quantities, shapes and figures, functions, logic, and reasoning. Mathematics is also a tool of science
and a language complete with its own notations and symbols and “grammar” rules, with which concepts and ideas are effectively expressed.
The contents of mathematics include Numbers and Number Sense, Measurement, Geometry, Patterns & Algebra and Statistics and Probability.
Numbers and Number Sense as a strand include concepts of numbers, properties, operations, estimation, and their applications.
Measurement as a strand includes the use of numbers and measures to describe, understand, and compare mathematical and concrete objects. It focuses on
attributes such as length, mass and weight, capacity, time, money, and temperature, as well as applications involving perimeter, area, surface area, volume, and angle
Geometry as a strand includes properties of two- and three-dimensional figures and their relationships, spatial visualization, reasoning, and geometric modelling and
Patterns and Algebra as a strand studies patterns, relationships, and changes among shapes and quantities. It includes the use of algebraic notations and
symbols, equations, and most importantly, functions, to represent and analyze relationships.
Statistics and Probability as a strand is all about developing skills in collecting and organizing data using charts, tables, and graphs; understanding, analyzing and
interpreting data; dealing with uncertainty; and making predictions about outcomes.
The K to 10 Mathematics Curriculum provides a solid foundation for Mathematics at Grades 11 to 12. More importantly, it pro vides necessary concepts and life
skills needed by Filipino learners as they proceed to the next stage in their life as learners and as citizens of the Philippines.
Mother Tongue – Based Multilingual Education (MTB-MLE) is the government’s banner program for education as a salient part of the implementation of the K to 12
Basic Education Program. Its significance is underscored by the passing of Republic Act 10523, otherwise known as the “Enhanced Basic Educatiion Act of 2013.”
MTBMLE is education, formal or non - formal, in which the learner’s mother tongue and additional languages are used in the classroom. Learners begin their
education in the language they understand best - their mother tongue - and develop a strong foundation in their mother language before adding additional languages.
Research stresses the fact that children with a solid foundation in their mother tongue develop stronger literacy abilities in the school language. Their knowledge and skills
transfer across languages. This bridge enables the learners to use both or all their languages for success in school and for lifelong learning. In terms of cognitive
development, the school activities will engage learners to move well beyond th basic wh-questions to cover all higher order thinking skills in L1 which they can transfer to the
other languages once enough Filipino or English has been acquired to use these skills in thinking and articulating thoughts.
With the nd goal of making Filipino children lifelong learners in their Li (MT), L2 (Filipino, the national language), and L3 (English, the global language) the learners
are more thatn prepared to develop the competencies in the different learning areas. This will serve as their passport to enter and achieve well in the mainstream educational
system and in the end, contribute productively to their community and to the larger society as well as Multilingual, Multiliterate, and Multi-Cultural Citizens of the country.
For the effective implementation of the MTB-MLE, it is suggested that the two-track method be used, that is the primer track to focus on accuracy and the story track
to focus on meaning. Learning via the two-track method to gain proficiency in leteracy as well as comprehend academic content and gain curriculum mastery, creative and
critical thinking skills for decisive decision-making.
Literacy. We only learn to read once. Learning to read in the L1 develops skills that transfer to reading any other languages. Comprehension in reading other
languages only occurs after oral proficiency has developed such that vocabulary of the written L2 text is already part of the learners’ spoken vocabulary.
Prior knowledge. Engaging learners in a discussion of what is already familiar to them using the home language and culture enables better
learning of the curriculum through integration and application of that knowledge into current knowledge schemes.
Cognitive development and higher order thinking skills (HOTS). Using the learners’ mother tongue provides a strong foundation by developing cognitive skills
and comprehension of the academic content from day one. The knowledge, skills, attitudes, and values gained through the mother tongue better support learning of
other languages and learning through other languages later.
o As learners articulate their thoughts and expand ideas, both language and critical thinking are strengthened. MTBMLE cultivates critical thinking through
talking about ideas in the familiar language. When teaching only in the L2, critical thinking is postponed until L2 is sufficiently developed to support such
Strong Bridge. MTBMLE provides a good bridge to listening, speaking, reading, and writing the L2s (L2, L3) of the classroom using sound educational principles for
building fluency and confidence in using the other languages for lifelong learning. Reading in the L2 is only introduced after basic L1 reading fluency and L2 oral
proficiency are developed. Comprehension in reading the L2 occurs after the development of that spoken L2. Once sufficient oral and written proficiency in the L2
are developed, a gradual transition to using the L2 as medium of instruction can progress without the L1 support.
Scaffolding. In L2 teaching, the L1 is used to support learning when the L2 is not sufficiently developed to be used alone. The L1 is used for expression and the
teacher facilitates the development of the L2 to enable learners to adequately express ideas in the L2. In this way, the L1 strengthens the learning of the L2 by
supporting the L2 development for communication.
Teaching for meaning and accuracy. Decoding text requires accuracy, while comprehending texts requires decoding skills within a meaningful context. Both
meaning and accuracy are important, but in classrooms that teach only L2 , there is often primary focus on accuracy until the L2 is sufficiently learned. This delays
actual meaningful learning until the L2 can support that learning.
Confidence building and proficiency development for two or more languages along the following macro-skills ( listening, speaking, reading,
writing, and viewing ) for both meaning and accuracy .
Science education aims to develop scientific literacy among learners that will prepare them to be informed and participative citizens who are able to make judgments
and decisions regarding applications of scientific knowledge that may have social, health, or environmental impacts.
The science curriculum recognizes the place of science and technology in everyday human affairs. It integrates science and technology in the social, economic,
personal and ethical aspects of life. The science curriculum promotes a strong link between science and technology, including indigenous technology, thus preserving our
country’s cultural heritage.
The K to 12 science curriculum will provide learners with a repertoire of competencies important in the world of work and in a knowledge-based society. It envisions
the development of scientifically, technologically, and environmentally literate and productive members of society who are critical problem solvers, responsible stewards of
nature, innovative and creative citizens, informed decision makers, and effective communicators. This curriculum is designed around the three domains of learning science:
understanding and applying scientific knowledge in local setting as well as global context whenever possible, performing scientific processes and skills, and developing and
demonstrating scientific attitudes and values. The acquisition of these domains is facilitated using the following approaches: multi/interdisciplinary approach, sciencetechnology-society approach, contextual learning, problem/issue-based learning, and inquiry-based approach. The approaches are based on sound educational pedagogy
namely, constructivism, social cognition learning model, learning style theory, and brain-based learning.
Science content and science processes are intertwined in the K to 12 Curriculum. Without the content, learners will have difficulty utilizing science process skills since
these processes are best learned in context. Organizing the curriculum around situations and problems that challenge and arouse learners’ curiosity motivates them to learn
and appreciate science as relevant and useful. Rather than relying solely on textbooks, varied hands-on, minds-on, and hearts-on activities will be used to develop learners’
interest and let them become active learners.
As a whole, the K to 12 science curriculum is learner-centered and inquiry-based, emphasizing the use of evidence in constructing explanations. Concepts and skills in
Life Sciences, Physics, Chemistry, and Earth Sciences are presented with increasing levels of complexity from one grade level to another in spiral progression, thus paving the
way to a deeper understanding of core concepts. The integration across science topics and other disciplines will lead to a meaningful understanding of concepts and its
application to real-life situations.
I. PHILOSOPHY AND RATIONALE Language is the basis of all communication and the primary instrument of thought. Thinking, learning, and language are interrelated. Language is governed by rules and systems (language conventions) which are used to explore and communicate meaning. It defines culture which is essential in understanding oneself (personal identity), forming interpersonal relationships (socialization), extending experiences, reflecting on thought and action, and contributing to a better society. Language, therefore, is central to the peoples’ intellectual, social and emotional development and has an essential role in all key learning areas1 . Language is the foundation of all human relationships. All human relationships are established on the ability of people to communicate effectively with each other. Our thoughts, values and understandings are developed and expressed through language. This process allows students to understand better the world in which they live and contributes to the development of their personal perspectives of the global community. People use language to make sense of and bring order to their world. Therefore, proficiency in the language enables people to access, process and keep abreast of information, to engage with the wider and more diverse communities, and to learn about the role of language in their own lives, and in their own and other cultures.
II. GUIDING PRINCIPLES The K-12 Language Arts and Multiliteracies Curriculum is anchored on the following language acquisition, learning, teaching and assessing principles. All languages are interrelated and interdependent. Facility in the first language (L1) strengthens and supports the learning of other languages (L2). Acquisition of sets of skills and implicit metalinguistic knowledge in one language (common underlying proficiency or CUP) provides the base for the development of both the first language (L1) and the second language (L2)2 . It follows that any expansion of CUP that takes place in one language will have a beneficial effect on the other language(s). This principle serves to explain why it becomes easier and easier to learn additional languages. Language acquisition and learning is an active process that begins at birth and continues throughout life. It is continuous and recursive throughout students’ lives. Students enhance their language abilities by using what they know in new and more complex contexts and with increasing sophistication (spiral progression). They reflect on and use prior knowledge to extend and enhance their language and understanding. By learning and incorporating new language structures into their repertoire and using them in a variety of contexts, students develop language fluency and proficiency. Positive learning experiences in language-rich environments enable students to leave school with a desire to continue to extend their knowledge, skills and interests.
Learning requires meaning . We learn when we use what we know to understand what is new. Start with what the students know; use that to introduce new concepts. They use language to examine new experiences and knowledge in relation to their prior knowledge, experiences, and beliefs. They make connections, anticipate possibilities, reflect upon ideas, and determine courses of action. Learners learn about language and how to use it effectively through their engagement with and study of texts. The term ‘text’ refers to any form of written (reading and writing), oral (listening and speaking) and visual communication involving language4 . The texts through which students learn about language are wide-ranging and varied, from brief conversations to lengthy and complex forms of writing. The study of specific texts is the means by which learners achieve the desired outcomes of language, rather than an end in itself. Learners learn to create texts of their own and to engage with texts produced by other people. Successful language learning involves viewing, listening, speaking, reading and writing activities5 . Language learning should include a plethora of strategies and activities that helps students focus on both MEANING and ACCURACY. Language learning involves recognizing, accepting, valuing and building on students’ existing language competence, including the use of non-standard forms of the language, and extending the range of language available to students. Through language learning, learners develop functional and critical literacy skills. They learn to control and understand the conventions of the target language that are valued and rewarded by society and to reflect on and critically analyze their own use of language and the language of others. An effective language arts and multiliteracies curriculum satisfies the following principles6 . 1. develops thinking and language through interactive learning; 2. develops communicative competence and critical literacy; 3. draws on literature in order to develop students’ understanding of their literary heritage; 4. draws on informational texts and multimedia in order to build academic vocabulary and strong content knowledge; 5. develops students’ oral language and literacy through appropriately challenging learning; 6. emphasizes writing arguments, explanatory/informative texts and narratives; 7. provides explicit skill instruction in reading and writing; 8. builds on the language, experiences, knowledge and interests that students bring to school; 9. nurtures students’ sense of their common ground in using language/s for communication as present or future global citizens to prepare them to participate in school and in civic life, and; 10. assesses and reflects the students’ ability to interpret and/or communicate in the target language.
III. NEEDS OF THE LEARNERS : THE CONTEXT
The generation born after the year 1994 until 2004 is referred to as Generation Z. This is the first generation to be born with complete technology. They were
born with PCs, mobile phones, gaming devices, MP3 players and the ubiquitous Internet. They do not know life without technology. Hence, they are often
termed as digital natives and are extremely comfortable with technology. They can email, text and use computers without any problems. In addition, members
of Generation Z can understand and master advancement in technology. Unfortunately, this reliance on technology and gadgets has had a negative effect on
the members. They rather stay indoors and use their electronics than play outdoors and be active. They are leading a sedentary life that can result in health
problems later on.
For them, social media platforms are a way to communicate with the outside world. They are not bothered about privacy and are willing to share intimate
details about themselves with complete strangers. They have virtual friends and for them hanging out with friends means talking to them over the cell phones,
emails and text messages. However, at the same time, this generation is considered to be creative and collaborative and will have a significant impact on the
way companies work when they join the workforce.
Members of Generation Z are adept at multi-tasking. They can text, read, watch, talk and even eat simultaneously. However, this has also led to reduced
attention span leading to what psychologists call acquired attention deficit disorder. This generation is unable to analyze complex data and information as they
cannot focus for very long.
While we don’t know much about Gen Z yet...we know a lot about the environment they are growing up in. This highly diverse environment will make the grade
schools of the next generation the most diverse ever. Higher levels of technology will make significant inroads in academics allowing for customized instruction,
data mining of student histories to enable diagnostics and remediation or accelerated achievement opportunities.
Gen Z kids will grow up with a highly sophisticated media and computer environment and will be more Internet savvy and expert than their Gen Y forerunners.
The ultimate goal of the Language Arts and Multiliteracies Curriculum is to produce graduates who apply the language conventions, principles, strategies and
skills in (1) interacting with others, (2) understanding and learning other content areas, and (3) fending for themselves in whatever field of endeavour they may
1. Communicative Competence
Communicative Competence is a synthesis of knowledge of basic grammatical principles, knowledge of how language is used in social settings to perform
communicative functions, and how knowledge of utterances and communicative functions can be combined according to the principles of discourse.8
Communicative competence is classified into the following competencies.
1. Grammatical/Linguistic Competence means the acquisition of phonological rules, morphological words, syntactic rules, semantic rules and lexical items.
2. Sociolinguistic Competence refers to the learning of pragmatic aspect of various speech acts, namely, the cultural values, norms, and other sociocultural conventions in social contexts. They are the context and topic of discourse, the participant’s social status, sex, age, and other factors which influence
styles and registers of speech. Since different situations call for different types of expressions as well as different beliefs, views, values, and attitudes, the
development of sociolinguistic competence is essential for communicative social action.
3. Discourse Competence is the knowledge of rules regarding the cohesion (grammatical links) and coherence (appropriate combination of communicative
actions) of various types of discourse (oral and written). Sociolinguistic rules of use and rules of discourse are crucial in interpreting utterances for social
meaning, particularly when the literal meaning of an utterance does not lead to the speaker’s intention easily.
4. Strategic Competence is to DO with the knowledge of verbal and non-verbal strategies to compensate for breakdown such as self-correction and at
the same time to enhance the effectiveness of communication such as recognizing discourse structure, activating background knowledge, contextual
guessing, and tolerating ambiguity.
Multiliteracies (multi literacy practices) recognize that there are many kinds of literacy at work within our society. These include traditional literacy practices
using texts as well as new literacy practices using texts of popular culture such as films. Social literacy encompasses how we communicate and exchange
meaning in our society while professional literacy links with the notion of literacy for school of the workplace.
The curriculum aims to help learners acquire highly-developed literacy skills that enable them to understand that English language is the most widely used
medium of communication in Trade and the Arts, Sciences, Mathematics, and in world economy. Furthermore, the curriculum aims to help learners understand
that English language is a dynamic social process which responds to and reflects changing social conditions, and that English is inextricably involved with values,
beliefs and ways of thinking about ourselves and the world we dwell in. Through multi-literacy skills, learners will be able to appreciate and be sensitive to
sociocultural diversity and understand that the meaning of any form of communication depends on context, purpose and audience.
The world is now in the “Knowledge age” where the challenge of education is to prepare learners to deal with the challenges of the changing world. Students in this age
must be prepared to compete in a global economy, understand and operate complex communication and information systems, and apply higher level thinking skills to make
decisions and solve problems.
The Language Arts and Multiliteracies Curriculum (LAMC) addresses these needs. This is the rationale why Mother Tongue, Filipino and English follow a unified framework
which allows easy transition from acquiring and learning one language to another.
The curriculum has five (5) components. Each component is essential to the learners’ ability to communicate effectively in a language leading them to achieve communicative
competence and multiliteracies in the Mother Tongue, Filipino and English. The diagram on page 2 shows that the heart and core of LAMC is making meaning through
language and aims to develop graduates who are communicatively competent and multiliterates.
Component 1 illustrates learning processes that will effect acquisition and learning of the language. It explains the HOW of language learning and therefore serves as
guiding principles for language teaching.
Component 2 describes knowledge and skill areas which are essential to effective language use (understanding of cultures, understanding language, processes and
strategies) which will be developed through language arts (macro-skills).
Component 3 shows the interdependence and interrelationships of the macro-skills of the language (listening, speaking and viewing; reading, viewing and responding;
writing and representing) and the development of thinking skills (critical thinking, creative thinking and metacognition) allowing students to make meaning through
Component 4 explains the holistic assessment of the Language Arts and Literacy Curriculum which serves as feedback of its effectiveness to students, teachers, school
administrators, and curriculum developers.
Naging batayan ng K-12 Araling Panlipunan Kurikulum ang mithiin ng “Edukasyon para sa Lahat 2015” (Education for All 2015) at ang K-12 Philippine Basic
Education Curriculum Framework. Layon ng mga ito na magkaroon ng mga kakayahang kinakailangang sa siglo 21 upang makalinang ng “functionally literate and
developed Filipino.” Kaya naman, tiniyak na ang mga binuong nilalaman, pamantayang pangnilalalaman at pamantayan sa pagganap sa bawat baitang ay makapag-aambag
sa pagtatamo ng nasabing mithiin. Sa pag-abot ng nasabing mithiin, tunguhin (goal) ng K-12 Kurikulum ng Araling Panlipunan ang makahubog ng mamamayang mapanuri,
mapagmuni, mapanagutan, produktibo, makakalikasan, makabansa at makatao na may pambansa at pandaigdigang pananaw at pagpapahalaga sa mga usaping
pangkasaysayan at panlipunan.
Katuwang sa pagkamit ng layuning ito ay ang pagsunod sa teorya sa pagkatuto na kontruktibismo, magkatuwang na pagkatuto (collaborative learning), at
pagkatutong pangkaranasan at pangkonteksto at ang paggamit ng mga pamaraang tematiko-kronolohikal at paksain/ konseptuwal, pagsisiyat, intregratibo, interdesiplinaryo
at multisiplinaryo. Sa pagkamit ng nasabing adhikain, mithi ng kurikulum na mahubog ang pag-iisip (thinking), perpekstibo at pagpapahalagang pangkasaysayan at sa iba
pang disiplina ng araling panlipunan ng mag-aaral sa pamamagitan ng magkasabay na paglinang sa kanilang kaalaman at kasanayang pang-disiplina.
Mula sa unang baitang hanggang ika-labindalawang baitang, naka-angkla (anchor) ang mga paksain at pamantayang pang-nilalaman at pamantayan sa pagganap ng
bawat yunit sa pitong tema: I) tao, kapaligiran at lipunan 2)panahon, pagpapatuloy at pagbabago, 3) kutlura, pananagutan at pagkabansa, 4) karapatan, pananagutan at
pagkamamamayan 5) kapangyarihan, awtoridad at pamamahala, 6)produksyon, distibusyon at pagkonsumo 7) at ungnayang pangrehiyon at pangmundo Samantala, ang
kasanayan sa iba’t-ibang disiplina ng araling panlipunan tulad pagkamalikhain, mapanuring pag-iisip at matalinong pagpapasya , pagsasaliksik/ pagsisiyasat, kasanayang
pangkasaysayan at Araling Panlipunan, at pakikipagtalastasan at pagpapalawak ng pandaigdigan pananaw, ay kasabay na nalilinang ayon sa kinakailangang pag-unawa at
pagkatuto ng mag-aaral sa paraang expanding.
Sa ibang salita, layunin ng pagtuturo ng K-12 Araling Panlipunan na malinang sa mag-aaral ang pag-unawa sa mga pangunahing kaisipan at isyung pangkasaysayan,
pangheograpiya, pampulitika, ekonomiks at kaugnay na disiplinang panlipunan upang siya ay makaalam, makagawa, maging ganap at makipamuhay (Pillars of Learning).
Binibigyang diin sa kurikulum ang pag-unawa at hindi pagsasaulo ng mga konsepto at terminolohiya. Bilang pagpapatunay ng malalim na pag-unawa, ang mag-aaral ay
kinakailangang makabuo ng sariling kahulugan at pagpapakahulugan sa bawat paksang pinag-aaralan at ang pagsasalin nito sa ibang konteksto lalo na ang aplikasyon nito
sa tunay na buhay na may kabuluhan mismo sa kanya at sa lipunang kanyang ginagalawan.
Kaugnay nito, layunin ng pagtuturo ng Filipino na malinang ang (1) kakayahang komunikatibo, (2) replektibo / mapanuring pag-iisip at, (3) pagpapahalagang pampanitikan ng mga mag-aaral sa
pamamagitan ng mga babasahin at teknolohiya tungo sa pagkakaroon ng pambansang pagkakakilanlan, kultural na literasi, at patuloy na pagkatuto upang makaagapay sa mabilis na pagbabagong nagaganap sa
Sa ikatatamo ng mithiing ito, kailangan ng mga kagamitang panturo ng mga guro bilang suporta sa kurikulum na magmumula sa administrasyon, ahensiyang panlipunan, pribado at publiko, pamahalaang
lokal, midya, tahanan at iba pang sektor ng lipunan.
Isinaalang-alang sa pagbuo ng kurikulum ang pangangailangang panlipunan, lokal at global na pamayanan, maging ang kalikasan at pangangailangan ng mga mag-aaral. Pinagbatayan din ang mga legal na
batas pang-edukasyon, at mga teoryang pilosopikal ng edukasyon at wika nina Jean Piaget (Developmental Stages of Learning), Leo Vygotsky (Cooperative Learning), Jerome Bruner (Discovery Learning), Robert
Gagne (Heirarchical Learning ), David Ausubel (Interactive/Integrated Learning),Cummins (Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills-BICS at Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency Skills-CALPS) at ng ating
pambansang bayaning si Dr. Jose P. Rizal na nagsabing “nasa kabataan ang pag-asa ng bayan”. Dahil ang Filipino ay nasa disiplina ng wika, pinagbatayan ang mga teorya sa kalikasan at pagkatuto ng wika, mga
teorya / simulain sa pagsusuring panliterasi at mga pagdulog sa pagtuturo ng wika (W1, W2, W3) at pagtuturo ng mga akdang pampanitikan at tekstong palahad.