Technology and Livelihood Education encompasses the field of Home Economics (H.E.); Industrial Arts (IA); Agri-Fishery Arts (AFA); and Information, Communication. and Technology (ICT). The 24 TLE courses can be categorized under any of these fields. TLE as a course has two streams—the TR-based TLE and the Entrepreneur-based TLE—and every school has a choice as to which stream to offer, with consideration forfaculty, facilities, and resources. Both streams are based on the Training Regulations, but the Entrepreneur-based TLE embeds entrepreneurship concepts in the teaching of the various subjects in HE , IA, AFA, and ICT. TLE is geared toward the development of technological proficiency and is anchored on knowledge and information, entrepreneurial concepts, process and delivery, work values, and lifeskills. This means that the TLE that works is one which is built on adequate mastery of knowledge and information, skills and processes, and the acquisition of right work values and life skills. The TLE that is functional is one whichequips students with skills for lifelong learning. TLE that is concerned only with mere definition of terms is meaningless and shallow. TLE that is focused on mastery of skills and processes without right work values is anemic and dangerous. An effective TLE is one that is founded on the cognitive, behavioral, or psychomotor and affective dimensions of human development. Therefore teaching TLE means teaching facts, concepts, skills, and values in their entirety. The diagram likewise shows that entrepreneurial concepts also form part of the foundation of quality TLE. It is expected that TLE students, after using the Learning Modules on Entrepreneurship-based TLE, imbibe the entrepreneurial spirit and consequently set up their own businesses in the areas of Agri-Fishery Arts, Industrial Arts, Home Economics, and Information and Communication Technology. TLE by its nature is dominantly a skill subject; hence the teacher must engage students in an experiential, contextualized, and authentic teaching-learning process. It is a subject in whichstudentslearn best by doing. It is integrative in approach. For instance, it integrates entrepreneurship with all the areas of TLE. It integrates concepts, skills, and values.

Mathematics from K-10 is a skills subject. By itself, it is all about quantities, shapes and figures, functions, logic, and reasoning. Mathematics is also a tool of science and a language complete with its own notations and symbols and “grammar” rules, with which concepts and ideas are effectively expressed. The contents of mathematics include Numbers and Number Sense, Measurement, Geometry, Patterns & Algebra and Statistics and Probability. Numbers and Number Sense as a strand include concepts of numbers, properties, operations, estimation, and their applications. Measurement as a strand includes the use of numbers and measures to describe, understand, and compare mathematical and concrete objects. It focuses on attributes such as length, mass and weight, capacity, time, money, and temperature, as well as applications involving perimeter, area, surface area, volume, and angle measure. Geometry as a strand includes properties of two- and three-dimensional figures and their relationships, spatial visualization, reasoning, and geometric modelling and proofs. Patterns and Algebra as a strand studies patterns, relationships, and changes among shapes and quantities. It includes the use of algebraic notations and symbols, equations, and most importantly, functions, to represent and analyze relationships. Statistics and Probability as a strand is all about developing skills in collecting and organizing data using charts, tables, and graphs; understanding, analyzing and interpreting data; dealing with uncertainty; and making predictions about outcomes. The K to 10 Mathematics Curriculum provides a solid foundation for Mathematics at Grades 11 to 12. More importantly, it pro vides necessary concepts and life skills needed by Filipino learners as they proceed to the next stage in their life as learners and as citizens of the Philippines.